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Florida Rules of Criminal Procedure

3.190. Pretrial Motions

(a) In General. Every pretrial motion and pleading in response to a motion shall be in writing and signed by the party making the motion or the attorney for the party. This requirement may be waived by the court for good cause shown. Each motion or other pleading shall state the ground or grounds on which it is based. A copy shall be served on the adverse party. A certificate of service must accompany the filing of any pleading.

(b) Motion to Dismiss; Grounds. All defenses available to a defendant by plea, other than not guilty, shall be made only by motion to dismiss the indictment or information, whether the same shall relate to matters of form, substance, former acquittal, former jeopardy, or any other defense.

(c) Time for Moving to Dismiss. Unless the court grants further time, the defendant shall move to dismiss the indictment or information either before or at arraignment. The court in its discretion may permit the defendant to plead and thereafter to file a motion to dismiss at a time to be set by the court. Except for objections based on fundamental grounds, every ground for a motion to dismiss that is not presented by a motion to dismiss within the time hereinabove provided shall be considered waived. However, the court may at any time entertain a motion to dismiss on any of the following grounds:

(1) The defendant is charged with an offense for which the defendant has been pardoned.

(2) The defendant is charged with an offense for which the defendant previously has been placed in jeopardy.

(3) The defendant is charged with an offense for which the defendant previously has been granted immunity.

(4) There are no material disputed facts and the undisputed facts do not establish a prima facie case of guilt against the defendant.
The facts on which the motion is based should be alleged specifically and the motion sworn to.

(d) Traverse or Demurrer. The state may traverse or demur to a motion to dismiss that alleges factual matters. Factual matters alleged in a motion to dismiss under subdivision (c)(4) of this rule shall be considered admitted unless specifically denied by the state in the traverse. The court may receive evidence on any issue of fact necessary to the decision on the motion. A motion to dismiss under subdivision (c)(4) of this rule shall be denied if the state files a traverse that, with specificity, denies under oath the material fact or facts alleged in the motion to dismiss. The demurrer or traverse shall be filed a reasonable time before the hearing on the motion to dismiss.

(e) Effect of Sustaining a Motion to Dismiss. If the motion to dismiss is sustained, the court may order that the defendant be held in custody or admitted to bail for a reasonable specified time pending the filing of a new indictment or information. If a new indictment or information is not filed within the time specified in the order, or within such additional time as the court may allow for good cause shown, the defendant, if in custody, shall be discharged therefrom, unless some other charge justifies a continuation in custody. If the defendant has been released on bail, the defendant and the sureties shall be exonerated; if money or bonds have been deposited as bail, the money or bonds shall be refunded.

(f) Motion for Continuance.

(1) Definition. A continuance within the meaning of this rule is the postponement of a cause for any period of time.

(2) Cause. On motion of the state or a defendant or on its own motion, the court may grant a continuance, in its discretion for good cause shown.

(3) Time for Filing. A motion for continuance may be made only before or at the time the case is set for trial, unless good cause for failure to so apply is shown or the ground for the motion arose after the cause was set for trial.

(4) Certificate of Good Faith. A motion for continuance shall be accompanied by a certificate of the movant‘s counsel that the motion is made in good faith.

(5) Affidavits. The party applying for a continuance may file affidavits in support of the motion, and the adverse party may file counter-affidavits in opposition to the motion.

(g) Motion to Suppress Evidence in Unlawful Search.

(1) Grounds. A defendant aggrieved by an unlawful search and seizure may move to suppress anything so obtained for use as evidence because:

(A) the property was illegally seized without a warrant;

(B) the warrant is insufficient on its face;

(C) the property seized is not the property described in the warrant;

(D) there was no probable cause for believing the existence of the grounds on which the warrant was issued; or

(E) the warrant was illegally executed.

(2) Contents of Motion. Every motion to suppress evidence shall state clearly the particular evidence sought to be suppressed, the reasons for suppression, and a general statement of the facts on which the motion is based.

(3) Hearing. Before hearing evidence, the court shall determine if the motion is legally sufficient. If it is not, the motion shall be denied. If the court hears the motion on its merits, the defendant shall present evidence supporting the defendant‘s position and the state may offer rebuttal evidence.

(4) Time for Filing. The motion to suppress shall be made before trial unless opportunity therefor did not exist or the defendant was not aware of the grounds for the motion, but the court may entertain the motion or an appropriate objection at the trial.

(h) Motion to Suppress a Confession or Admission Illegally Obtained.

(1) Grounds. On motion of the defendant or on its own motion, the court shall suppress any confession or admission obtained illegally from the defendant.

(2) Contents of Motion. Every motion made by a defendant to suppress a confession or admission shall identify with particularity any statement sought to be suppressed, the reasons for suppression, and a general statement of the facts on which the motion is based.

(3) Time for Filing. The motion to suppress shall be made before trial unless opportunity therefor did not exist or the defendant was not aware of the grounds for the motion, but the court in its discretion may entertain the motion or an appropriate objection at the trial.

(4) Hearing. The court shall receive evidence on any issue of fact necessary to be decided to rule on the motion.

(i) Motion to Take Deposition to Perpetuate Testimony.

(1) After the filing of an indictment or information on which a defendant is to be tried, the defendant or the state may apply for an order to perpetuate testimony. The application shall be verified or supported by the affidavits of credible persons that a prospective witness resides beyond the territorial jurisdiction of the court or may be unable to attend or be prevented from attending a trial or hearing, that the witness‘s testimony is material, and that it is necessary to take the deposition to prevent a failure of justice. The court shall order a commission to be issued to take the deposition of the witnesses to be used in the trial and that any nonprivileged designated books, papers, documents, or tangible objects be produced at the same time and place. If the application is made within 10 days before the trial date, the court may deny the application.

(2) If the defendant or the state desires to perpetuate the testimony of a witness living in or out of the state whose testimony is material and necessary to the case, the same proceedings shall be followed as provided in subdivision (i)(1), but the testimony of the witness may be taken before an official court reporter, transcribed by the reporter, and filed in the trial court.

(3) If the deposition is taken on the application of the state, the defendant and the defendant‘s attorney shall be given reasonable notice of the time and place set for the deposition. The officer having custody of the defendant shall be notified of the time and place and shall produce the defendant at the examination and keep the defendant in the presence of the witness during the examination. A defendant not in custody may be present at the examination, but the failure to appear after notice and tender of expenses shall constitute a waiver of the right to be present. The state shall pay to the defendant‘s attorney and to a defendant not in custody the expenses of travel and subsistence for attendance at the examination. The state shall make available to the defendant for examination and use at the deposition any statement of the witness being deposed that is in the possession of the state and that the state would be required to make available to the defendant if the witness were testifying at trial.

(4) The application and order to issue the commission may be made either in term time or in vacation. The commission shall be issued at a time to be fixed by the court.

(5) Except as otherwise provided, the rules governing the taking and filing of oral depositions, the objections thereto, the issuing, execution, and return of the commission, and the opening of the depositions in civil actions shall apply in criminal cases.

(6) No deposition shall be used or read into evidence when the attendance of the witness can be procured. If the court determines that any person whose deposition has been taken is absent because of procurement, inducement, or threats of any person on behalf of the state or of the defendant or of any person on the defendant‘s behalf, the deposition shall not be read in evidence on behalf of the defendant.

(j) Motion to Expedite. On motion by the state, the court, in the exercise of its discretion, shall take into consideration the dictates of sections 825.106 and 918.0155, Florida Statutes (1995).

Committee Notes

1968 Adoption. (a) New; devised by committee.

(b) Substantially the same as section 909.02, Florida Statutes, except changes name of ―motion to quash‖ to ―motion to dismiss.‖ This conforms to the terminology of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.
The statute authorizing the state to appeal from certain orders, section 924.07, Florida Statutes, should be amended by substituting the words ―motion to dismiss‖ for ―motion to quash.‖

(c) Combines the substance of sections 909.01 and 909.06, Florida Statutes. Subdivision (4) affords a new remedy to an accused. Although there is now a conclusive presumption of probable cause once an indictment or information is filed (see Sullivan v. State, 49 So.2d 794 (Fla. 1951)), it is felt that this rule is necessary. Primarily, this procedure will permit a pretrial determination of the law of the case when the facts are not in dispute. In a sense, this is somewhat similar to summary judgment proceedings in civil cases, but a dismissal under this rule is not a bar to a subsequent prosecution.

(d) New; based on Marks v. State, 115 Fla. 497, 155 So. 727 (1934), and what is generally regarded as the better practice. Hearing provision based on federal rule 41(e).

(e) Combines federal rule 12(b)(5) and section 909.05, Florida Statutes. With reference to the maximum time that a defendant will be held in custody or on bail pending the filing of a new indictment or information, the trial court is given discretion in setting such time as to both the indictment and information. This proposal differs from section 909.05, Florida Statutes, with reference to the filing of a new indictment in that the statute requires that the new indictment be found by the same grand jury or the next grand jury having the authority to inquire into the offense. If the supreme court has the authority to deviate from this statutory provision by court rule, it seems that the trial court should be granted the same discretion with reference to the indictment that it is granted concerning the information. The statute is harsh in that under its provisions a person can be in custody or on bail for what may be an unreasonable length of time before a grand jury is required to return an indictment in order that the custody or bail be continued.

(g)(1) This subdivision is almost the same as section 916.02(1), Florida Statutes.

(g)(2) This subdivision is almost the same as section 916.02(2), Florida Statutes.

(g)(3) This subdivision is almost the same as section 916.03, Florida Statutes.

(g)(4) This subdivision rewords a portion of section 916.04, Florida Statutes.

(g)(5) This subdivision rewords section 916.07, Florida Statutes.

(h) Same as federal rule 41(e) as to the points covered.

(i) This rule is based on 38-144-11 of the Illinois Code of Criminal Procedure and federal rule 41(e).

(j) This subdivision rewords and adds to federal rule 14. It covers the subject matter of section 918.02, Florida Statutes.

(k) This rule is almost the same as federal rule 13, with provision added for trial by affidavit.

(l) Substantially same as section 916.06, Florida Statutes, with these exceptions: application cannot be made until indictment, information, or trial affidavit is filed; application must be made at least 10 days before trial; oral deposition in addition to written interrogatories is permissible.

1972 Amendment. Subdivision (h) is amended to require the defendant to specify the factual basis behind the grounds for a motion to suppress evidence. Subdivision (l) is amended to permit the state to take depositions under the same conditions that the defendant can take them. Former subdivisions (j) and (k) transferred to rules 3.150, 3.151, and 3.152. Subdivisions (l) and (m) renumbered (j) and (k) respectively. Otherwise, same as prior rule.

1977 Amendment. This amendment resolves any ambiguity in the rule as to whether the state must

file a general or a specific traverse to defeat a motion to dismiss filed under the authority of rule 3.190(c)(4).

See State v. Kemp, 305 So.2d 833 (Fla. 3d DCA 1974).

The amendment clearly now requires a specific traverse to specific material fact or facts.

1992 Amendment. The amendments, in addition to gender neutralizing the wording of the rule, make a minor grammatical change by substituting the word ―upon‖ for ―on‖ in several places. The amendments also delete language from subdivision (a) to eliminate from the rule any reference as to when pretrial motions are to be served on the adverse party. Because rule 3.030 addresses the service of pleadings and papers, such language was removed to avoid confusion and reduce redundancy in the rules.

2002 Amendment. If the trial court exercises its discretion to consider the motion to suppress during trial, the court may withhold ruling on the merits of the motion, and motion for a judgment of acquittal, and allow the case to be submitted to the jury. If the defendant is acquitted, no further proceedings regarding the motion to suppress or motion for a judgment of acquittal would be necessary. However, if the jury finds the defendant guilty of the crime charged, the trial court could then consider the motion to suppress post-trial in conjunction with the defendant‘s renewed motion for a judgment of acquittal or motion for new trial.

 

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Florida Rules of Criminal Procedure
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. SCOPE, PURPOSE, AND CONSTRUCTION
3.010. Scope
3.020. Purpose and Construction
3.025. State and Prosecuting Attorney Defined
II. GENERAL PROVISIONS
3.030. Service of Pleadings and Papers
3.040. Computation of Time
3.050. Enlargement of Time
3.060. Time for Service of Motions and Notice of Hearing
3.070. Additional Time after Service by Mail
3.080. Nonverification of Pleadings
3.090. Pleading Captions
3.111. Providing Counsel to Indigents
3.112. Minimum Standards for Attorneys in Capital Cases
3.115. Duties of State Attorney; Criminal Intake
III. PRELIMINARY PROCEEDINGS
3.120. Committing Judge
3.121. Arrest Warrant
3.125. Notice to Appear
3.130. First Appearance
3.131. Pretrial Release
3.132. Pretrial Detention
3.133. Pretrial Probable Cause Determinations and Adversary Preliminary Hearings
3.134. Time for Filing Formal Charges
3.140. Indictments; Informations
3.150. Joinder of Offenses and Defendants
3.151. Consolidation of Related Offenses
3.152. Severance of Offenses and Defendants
3.153. Timeliness of Defendants Motion; Waiver
IV. ARRAIGNMENT AND PLEAS
3.160. Arraignment
3.170. Pleas
3.171. Plea Discussions and Agreements
3.172. Acceptance of Guilty or Nolo Contendere Plea
3.180. Presence of Defendant
V. PRETRIAL MOTIONS AND DEFENSES
3.190. Pretrial Motions
3.191. Speedy Trial
3.192. Motions for Rehearing
3.200. Notice of Alibi
3.201. [Battered-Spouse Syndrome Defense]
3.202. Expert Testimony of Mental Mitigation During Penalty Phase of Capital Trial: Notice and Examination by State Expert
3.203. Defendants Mental Retardation as a Bar to Imposition of the Death Penalty
3.210. Incompetence to Proceed: Procedure for Raising the Issue
3.211. Competence to Proceed: Scope of Examination and Report
3.212. Competence to Proceed: Hearing and Disposition
3.213. Continuing Incompetency to Proceed, Except Incompetency to Proceed with Sentencing: Disposition
3.214. Incompentency to Proceed to Sentencing: Disposition
3.215. Effect of Adjudication of Incompetency to Proceed: Psychotropic Medication
3.216. Insanity at Time of Offense or Probation or Community Control Violation: Notice and Appointment of Experts
3.217. Judgment of Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity: Disposition of Defendant
3.218. Commitment of a Defendant Found Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity
3.219. Conditional Release
VI. DISCOVERY
3.220. Discovery
VII. SUBSTITUTION OF JUDGE
3.231. Substitution of Judge
VIII. CHANGE OF VENUE
3.240. Change of Venue
IX. THE TRIAL
3.250. Accused as Witness
3.251. Right to Trial by Jury
3.260. Waiver of Jury Trial
3.270. Number of Jurors
3.280. Alternate Jurors
3.281. List of Prospective Jurors
3.290. Challenge to Panel
3.300. Voir Dire Examination, Oath and Excusing of Member
3.310. Time for Challenge
3.315. Exercise of Challenges
3.320. Manner of Challenge
3.330. Determination of Challenge for Cause
3.340. Effect of Sustaining Challenge
3.350. Peremptory Challenges
3.360. Oath of Trial Jurors
3.361. Witness Attendance and Subpoenas
X. CONDUCT OF TRIAL; JURY INSTRUCTIONS
3.370. Regulation and Separation of Jurors
3.371. Juror Questions of Witnesses
3.372. Juror Notebooks
3.380. Motion for Judgment of Acquittal
3.381. Final Arguments
3.390. Jury Instructions
3.391. Selection of Foreperson of Jury
3.400. Materials to the Jury Room
3.410. Jury to Review Evidence or for Additional Instructions
3.420. Recall of Jury for Additional Instructions
3.430. Jury not Recallable to Hear Additional Evidence
XI. THE VERDICT
3.440. Rendition of Verdict; Reception and Recording
3.450. Polling the Jury
3.451. Judicial Comment on Verdict
3.470. Proceedings on Sealing Verdict
3.490. Determination of Degree of Offense
3.500. Verdict of Guilty where more than one Count
3.505. Inconsistent Verdicts
3.510. Determination of Attempts and Lesser Included Offenses
3.520. Verdict in Case of Joint Defendants
3.530. Reconsideration of Ambiguous or Defective Verdict
3.540. When Verdict may be Rendered
3.550. Disposition of Defendant
3.560. Discharge of Jurors
3.570. Irregularity in Rendition, Reception and Recording of Verdict
3.575. Motion to Interview Juror
XII. POST-TRIAL MOTIONS
3.580. Court May Grant New Trial
3.590. Time for and Method of Making Motions; Procedure; Custody Pending Hearing
3.600. Grounds for New Trial
3.610. Motion for Arrest of Judgment; Grounds
3.620. When Evidence Sustains Only Conviction of Lesser Offense
3.630. Sentence Before or After Motion Filed
3.640. Effect of Granting New Trial
XIII. JUDGMENT
3.650. Judgment Defined
3.670. Rendition of Judgment
3.680. Judgment on Informal Verdict
3.690. Judgment of Not Guilty; Defendant Discharged and Sureties Exonerated
3.691. Post-Trial Release
3.692. Petition to Seal or Expunge
XIV. SENTENCE
3.700. Sentence Defined; Pronouncement and Entry; Sentencing Judge
3.701. Sentencing Guidelines
3.702. Sentencing Guidelines (1994)
3.703. Sentencing Guidelines (1994 as amended)
3.704. The Criminal Punishment Code
3.710. Presentence Report
3.711. Presentence Report: When Prepared
3.712. Presentence Report: Disclosure
3.713. Presentence Investigation Disclosure: Parties
3.720. Sentencing Hearing
3.721. Record of the Proceedings
3.730. Issuance of Capias when necessary to bring Defendant Before Court
3.750. Procedure when Pardon is Alleged as Cause for not Pronouncing Sentence
3.760. Procedure when Nonidentity is Alleged as Cause for not Pronouncing Sentence
3.770. Procedure when Pregnancy is Alleged as Cause for not Pronouncing Death Sentence
3.780. Sentencing Hearing for Capital Cases
3.790. Probation and Community Control
3.800. Correction, Reduction and Modification of Sentences
XV. EXECUTION OF SENTENCE
3.810. Commitment of Defendant; Duty of Sheriff
3.811. Insanity at Time of Execution: Capital Cases
3.812. Hearing on Insanity at Time of Execution: Capital Cases
3.820. Habeas Corpus
XVI. CRIMINAL CONTEMPT
3.830. Direct Criminal Contempt
3.840. Indirect Criminal Contempt
XVII. POSTCONVICTION RELIEF
3.850. Motion to Vacate, Set Aside or Correct Sentence
3.851. Collateral Relief After Death Sentence has been Imposed and Affirmed on Direct Appeal
3.852. Capital Postconviction Public Records Production
3.853. Motion for Postconviction DNA Testing
XVIII. FORMS
3.984. Application for Criminal Indigent Status
3.985. Standard Jury Instructions
3.9855. Juror Voir Dire Questionaire
3.986. Forms Related to Judgment and Sentence
3.987. Motion for Postconviction Relief
3.988. Sentencing Guidelines
3.989. Affidavit, Petition and Order to Expunge or Seal Forms
3.990(a). Sentencing Guidelines Scoresheet
3.990(b). Supplemental Sentencing Guidelines Scoresheet
3.991(a). Sentencing Guidelines Scoresheet (October 1, 1995)
3.991(b). Supplemental Sentencing Guidelines Scoresheet (October 1, 1995)
3.992(a). Criminal Punishment Code Scoresheet
3.992(b). Supplemental Criminal Punishment Code Scoresheet
3.993. Forms Related to Capital Postconviction Records Production
3.994. Order Certifying no Incarceration
3.995. Order of Revocation of Probation/Community Control
 
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Florida Rules of Evidence - Evidence Code
Florida Rules of Evidence - Witnesses, Records and Documents
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