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U.S. Code | Table of Contents
Federal Rules of Civil Procedure | Table of Contents
Unless a statute provides otherwise, a court may appoint a master only to:
(A) perform duties consented to by the parties;
(B) hold trial proceedings and make or recommend findings of fact on issues to be decided without a jury if appointment is warranted by:
(i) some exceptional condition; or
(ii) the need to perform an accounting or resolve a difficult computation of damages; or
(C) address pretrial and posttrial matters that cannot be effectively and timely addressed by an available district judge or magistrate judge of the district.
A master must not have a relationship to the parties, attorneys, action, or court that would require disqualification of a judge under 28 U.S.C. § 455, unless the parties, with the court's approval, consent to the appointment after the master discloses any potential grounds for disqualification.
(3) Possible Expense or Delay.
In appointing a master, the court must consider the fairness of imposing the likely expenses on the parties and must protect against unreasonable expense or delay.
Before appointing a master, the court must give the parties notice and an opportunity to be heard. Any party may suggest candidates for appointment.
The appointing order must direct the master to proceed with all reasonable diligence and must state:
(A) the master's duties, including any investigation or enforcement duties, and any limits on the master's authority under Rule 53(c);
(B) the circumstances, if any, in which the master may communicate ex parte with the court or a party;
(C) the nature of the materials to be preserved and filed as the record of the master's activities;
(D) the time limits, method of filing the record, other procedures, and standards for reviewing the master's orders, findings, and recommendations; and
(E) the basis, terms, and procedure for fixing the master's compensation under Rule 53(g).
The court may issue the order only after:
(A) the master files an affidavit disclosing whether there is any ground for disqualification under 28 U.S.C. § 455; and
(B) if a ground is disclosed, the parties, with the court's approval, waive the disqualification.
The order may be amended at any time after notice to the parties and an opportunity to be heard.
(1) In General.
Unless the appointing order directs otherwise, a master may:
(A) regulate all proceedings;
(B) take all appropriate measures to perform the assigned duties fairly and efficiently; and
(C) if conducting an evidentiary hearing, exercise the appointing court's power to compel, take, and record evidence.
A master who issues an order must file it and promptly serve a copy on each party. The clerk must enter the order on the docket.
A master must report to the court as required by the appointing order. The master must file the report and promptly serve a copy on each party, unless the court orders otherwise.
(1) Opportunity for a Hearing; Action in General.
In acting on a master's order, report, or recommendations, the court must give the parties notice and an opportunity to be heard; may receive evidence; and may adopt or affirm, modify, wholly or partly reject or reverse, or resubmit to the master with instructions.
(2) Time to Object or Move to Adopt or Modify.
A party may file objections to — or a motion to adopt or modify — the master's order, report, or recommendations no later than 21 days after a copy is served, unless the court sets a different time.
(3) Reviewing Factual Findings.
The court must decide de novo all objections to findings of fact made or recommended by a master, unless the parties, with the court's approval, stipulate that:
(A) the findings will be reviewed for clear error; or
(B) the findings of a master appointed under Rule 53(a)(1)(A) or
(C) will be final.
(4) Reviewing Legal Conclusions.
The court must decide de novo all objections to conclusions of law made or recommended by a master.
(5) Reviewing Procedural Matters.
Unless the appointing order establishes a different standard of review, the court may set aside a master's ruling on a procedural matter only for an abuse of discretion.
(1) Fixing Compensation.
Before or after judgment, the court must fix the master's compensation on the basis and terms stated in the appointing order, but the court may set a new basis and terms after giving notice and an opportunity to be heard.
The compensation must be paid either:
(A) by a party or parties; or
(B) from a fund or subject matter of the action within the court's control.
(3) Allocating Payment.
The court must allocate payment among the parties after considering the nature and amount of the controversy, the parties' means, and the extent to which any party is more responsible than other parties for the reference to a master. An interim allocation may be amended to reflect a decision on the merits.
A magistrate judge is subject to this rule only when the order referring a matter to the magistrate judge states that the reference is made under this rule.
LinksFederal Rules of Civil Procedure
I. SCOPE OF RULES--ONE FORM OF ACTION
1. Scope of Rules
2. One Form of Action
II. COMMENCEMENT OF ACTION; SERVICE OF PROCESS, PLEADINGS, MOTIONS, AND ORDERS
3. Commencing an Action
4.1. Serving Other Process
5. Serving and Filing Pleadings and Other Papers
5.1. Constitutional Challenge to a Statute - Notice, Certification, and Intervention
5.2. Privacy Protection For Filings Made with the Court
6. Computing and Extending Time; Time for Motion Papers
III. PLEADINGS AND MOTIONS
7. Pleadings Allowed; Form of Motions and Other Papers
7.1. Disclosure Statement
8. General Rules of Pleading
9. Pleading Special Matters
10. Form of Pleadings
11. Signing Pleadings, Motions, and Other Papers; Representations to the Court; Sanctions
12. Defenses and Objections: When and How Presented; Motion for Judgment on the Pleadings; Consolidating Motions; Waiving Defenses; Pretrial Hearing
13. Counterclaim and Crossclaim
14. Third-Party Practice
15. Amended and Supplemental Pleadings
16. Pretrial Conferences; Scheduling; Management
17. Plaintiff and Defendant; Capacity; Public Officers
18. Joinder of Claims
19. Required Joinder of Parties
20. Permissive Joinder of Parties
21. Misjoinder and Nonjoinder of Parties
23. Class Actions
23.1. Derivative Actions
23.2. Actions Relating to Unincorporated Associations
25. Substitution of Parties
V. DEPOSITIONS AND DISCOVERY
26. Duty to Disclose; General Provisions Governing Discovery
27. Depositions to Perpetuate Testimony
28. Persons Before Whom Depositions May Be Taken
29. Stipulations Regarding Discovery Procedure
30. Deposition by Oral Examination
31. Depositions by Written Questions
32. Using Depositions in Court Proceedings
33. Interrogatories to Parties
34. Producing Documents, Electronically Stored Information, and Tangible Things, or Entering onto Land, for Inspection and Other Purposes
35. Physical and Mental Examinations
36. Requests for Admission
37. Failure to Make Disclosures or to Cooperate in Discovery; Sanctions
38. Right to a Jury Trial; Demand
39. Trial by Jury or by the Court
40. Scheduling Cases for Trial
41. Dismissal of Actions
42. Consolidation; Separate Trials
43. Taking Testimony
44. Proving an Official Record
44.1. Determining Foreign Law
46. Objecting to a Ruling or Order
47. Selection of Jurors
48. Number of Jurors: Verdict
49. Special Verdict; General Verdict and Questions
50. Judgment as a Matter of Law in a Jury Trial; Related Motion for a New Trial; Conditional Ruling
51. Instructions to the Jury; Objections; Preserving a Claim of Error
52. Findings and Conclusions by the Court; Judgment on Partial Findings
54. Judgments; Costs
55. Default; Default Judgment
56. Summary Judgment
57. Declaratory Judgments
58. Entry of Judgment
59. New Trial; Altering or Amending a Judgment
60. Relief from Judgment or Order
61. Harmless Error
62. Stay of Proceedings to Enforce a Judgment
63. Judges Inability to Proceed
VIII. PROVISIONAL AND FINAL REMEDIES
64. Seizing a Person or Property
65. Injunctions and Restraining Orders
65.1 Proceedings Against a Surety
67. Deposit into Court
68. Offer of Judgment
70. Enforcing a Judgment for a Specific Act
71. Enforcing Relief For or Against a Nonparty
IX. SPECIAL PROCEEDINGS
71.1 Condemning Real or Personal Property
72. Magistrate Judges: Pretrial Orders
73. Magistrate Judges: Trial by Consent; Appeal
X. DISTRICT COURTS AND CLERKS
77. Conducting Business; Clerks Authority; Notice of an Order or Judgment
78. Hearing Motions; Submission on Briefs
79. Records Kept by the Clerk
80. Stenographic Transcript as Evidence
XI. GENERAL PROVISIONS
81. Applicability of the Rules in General; Removed Actions
82. Jurisdiction and Venue Unaffected
83. Rules by District Courts; Judge's Directives
86. Effective Date
XII. APPENDIX OF FORMS (U.S. Courts site)
XIII. SUPPLEMENTAL RULES FOR CERTAIN ADMIRALTY AND MARITIME CLAIMS
A. Scope of Rules
B. In Personam Actions: Attachment and Garnishment
C. Actions in Rem: Special Provisions
D. Possessory, Petitory, and Partition Actions
E. Actions in Rem and Quasi in Rem: General Provisions
F. Limitation of Liability
G. Forfeiture Actions In Rem
Federal Rules of Civil Procedure
Federal Rules of Appellate Procedure
Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure
Federal Rules of Evidence
Federal Sentencing Guidelines Manual
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